Signature Assignment Part I: Health Issue Annotated Bibliography (Individual Submission)
An annotated bibliography requires you to find a source of evidence-based information (journal article, book or public health document) and write a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph (annotation). Upon identification of your team health issue or topic,
each team member
be responsible for development of
This assignment works much like a puzzle in that your team gathers the puzzle pieces and then, through group communication, you discuss how those pieces fit together to reveal the whole picture, or in this case, how an evaluation of the information and your own opinions frame an evidence-based recommended course of action related to your health topic. As you develop your proposed course of action (solutions) you will need to include how social determinants of health affect this issue and include your proposals for solution.
The intent is to inform and highlight one particular topic, such as area of a health disparity, or other issue pertaining to population health. As you conduct your research, think about how social determinants of health affect this issue and what might be your proposals for solution. (You will revisit these considerations later in the semester during the “Rebounding in Life” learning activities.)
This assignment requires that you apply your intellectual skills: concise description of the material as it relates to your health issue, succinct analysis, and informed library research. (Core Objectives: Critical Thinking, Communication, Empirical and Quantitative, and Teamwork Skills.)
In public health, the questions asked often include the following aspects:
- WHAT is the health issue or topic? (i.e., condition or disease or issue)
- WHY is it important?
- WHO does the health issue affect? People/population/problem (What are the characteristics of the population?
- Comparisons (What is the alternative to the intervention? How is this health issue addressed? What measures are in place to PREVENT worsening of the health issue?)
- Outcomes (What are the relevant outcomes of this health issue? i.e., morbidity, death, complications)
- HOW will your proposed solution make a difference?
Annotated Bibliography is due Sun., Sept. 29 by 11;59 p.m. CST
Select a Topic:
As a team, choose a public health issue or topic, see the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) List of Diseases and Conditions for a list of topics:
https://www.cdc.gov/DiseasesConditions/ (Links to an external site.)
Begin the process of gathering your sources by first searching for your topic in Google Scholar or using databases available through the UTA Libraries such as PubMed. Locate and record citations to articles, books and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items, selecting your final sources. Then read the article and summarize the author’s main points. Be sure you pay special attention to how this particular source fits into the larger, ongoing public health conversation about the topic. Conduct a brief search on the author to determine his/her expertise, reputation, and credibility. Look at citations, articles, and books by this author to find information about who the author is, what his/her credentials are, and what occupation or position he/she holds. Similar to your author search, examine the publication or source to determine the publication’s reputation, credibility and target reader/researcher. Is the text specialized or general? Is the target audience clinicians (i.e., physicians, research scientists) or another audience such as public health professionals, university students or persons in the community? (Core Objectives: Critical Thinking, Communication, Empirical and Quantitative, and Teamwork Skills.
Develop Three Written Annotations:
Now that you have reviewed your sources, choosing three that are relevant to your health issue or topic, you will individually write three annotations that are between 150-200 words, summarizing the central theme and scope of the article. The annotation must be written in APA style. A sample annotated bibliography is shown below.
Submit the Assignment:
When your annotations are complete (and you have proofread for errors and checked your plagiarism index!), post the annotations to
the assignment portal
by the due date listed in the course calendar.
Each group member must upload their own three annotations.
Signature Assignment Part I: Health Issue Annotated Bibliography (Individual Submission) An annotated bibliography requires you to find a source of evidence-based information (journal article, book or
Introduction The selected research topic is eating disorders in males. Typically, statistics find that the victims of eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa or anorexia nervosa are predominantly among the female population. However, eating disorders may be presented by the male population as well; although a hidden population, it is perhaps due to the effects of social media, steroids, bodybuilding, and with societal pressures that the male population may feel the need to present more masculine in order to achieve social status (Pope et al, 1993). The statistics, endocrinopathies, and etiologies of eating disorders in males are researched, ideas in which are significantly important to understand in order to combat against this painful disease. By acknowledging the risk factors and the effects eating disorders can bring about, especially within this hidden population, society itself can bring about a more effective means of increasing nutrition and promoting healthy habits in order to decrease the significance of body dysmorphia. Annotated Bibliography Skolnick, A., Schulman, R. C., Galindo, R. J., & Mechanick, J. I. (2016). The endocrinopathies of male anorexia nervosa: case series. AACE clinical case reports, 2(4), e351-e357. Skolnick et al’s study elucidated the clinical characteristics of anorexia nervosa in male subjects specifically, and their subjects’ endocrinopathies or hormonal imbalances (2016). Skolnick presented four cases (two cases at the Mount Sinai Hospital and two cases at the Long Island Jewish Hospital) with hormonal imbalances due to anorexia. The four men presented caloric and protein malnutrition and thus experienced various levels of systemic complications. Diseases such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (disease in which the body produces little to no testosterone), hypercortisolemia (condition in which the pituitary gland produces too much cortisol that causes abnormalities within the body), and nonthyroidal illness syndrome (abnormal thyroid functioning). Such complications as a result of the eating disorder, anorexia, also brought about within the subjects, heart complications (2016). The subjects’ age of diagnosis were around 21 years old. Although most of the systemic complications lessened in intensity as the subjects improved their nutritional habits, their more severe issues such as hypogonadism persisted. The results from the research indicate that anorexia nervosa does cause a variety of endocrinopathies in male victims. Although the degree to which the disease causes complications vary, maintaining a healthy caloric intake and continuing healthy habits are necessary for victims to stay healthy. Pope Jr, H. G., Katz, D. L., & Hudson, J. I. (1993). Anorexia nervosa and “reverse anorexia” among 108 male bodybuilders. Comprehensive psychiatry, 34(6), 406-409. Pope et al’s study discovered that male bodybuilders have a significant potential of becoming a victim of an eating disorder (1993). Pope et al’s study highlighted the effects of anabolic steroids (synthetic steroids that work to promote muscle growth by acting as a makeshift testosterone) on a male bodybuilder’s mentality. By studying 108 bodybuilders through the use of the Structured Clinical Interview through the DSM-III (which studied an individual’s lifestyle and history), Pope et al identified that 55 utilized anabolic steroids while the other 53 did not. A significant three subjects were reported to have anorexia nervosa (2.8%, rather than the 0.02% rate of American men), while nine other subjects reported to have “reverse anorexia” symptoms (1993). The nine subjects with “reverse anorexia” believed they were too weak in stature, when in reality, as compared to most people, they were large and muscular. The nine subjects were also steroid users, while four subjects of the nine began using the steroids in order to be perceived as larger. The results from the research found that eating disorders, body dysmorphia, and overall body image complications may be significant in male bodybuilders. The use of anabolic steroids is a trend that may bring about new statistics in the way people perceive their body as well, as some of the subjects began to utilize the steroids as a result of their body dysmorphia. Carlat, D. J., Camargo, C. A., & Herzog, D. B. (1997). Eating disorders in males: A report on 135 patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154(8), 1127-1132. Carlat et al’s study identified the statistics and etiology of eating disorders among males who were treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 1994 (1997). Carlat et al’s research discovered that through the utilization of the DSM-IV criteria, 135 males (with the mean age of 19 years old) were found to have a various eating disorder. 62 (46%) had bulimia nervosa, 30 (22%) had anorexia nervosa, and 43 (32%) had a various eating disorder but not necessarily one that was distinctly identified (1997). Carlat et al’s research also found that 42% of the bulimic patients were homosexual or bisexual, and 58% of the anorexia patients were asexual. In addition, about half of the patients had a major depressive disorder, struggled with substance abuse, and some also suffered from a personality disorder (1997). The results from the research found that homosexual and bisexual orientations may be associated as a risk factor for an eating disorder, especially with bulimia nervosa. In addition, as the mean age of onset for the patients was 19 years old, it may be found that it is at a young man’s age that they are at the greatest potential of contracting an eating disorder. References Carlat, D. J., Camargo, C. A., & Herzog, D. B. (1997). Eating disorders in males: A report on 135 patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154(8), 1127-1132. Pope Jr, H. G., Katz, D. L., & Hudson, J. I. (1993). Anorexia nervosa and “reverse anorexia” among 108 male bodybuilders. Comprehensive psychiatry, 34(6), 406-409. Skolnick, A., Schulman, R. C., Galindo, R. J., & Mechanick, J. I. (2016). The endocrinopathies of male anorexia nervosa: case series. AACE clinical case reports, 2(4), e351-e357.