Research Essay

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Task Rationale

Writing an

Annotated Bibliography

will help you to find, summarise and organise the relevant research literature to support you in providing evidence based clinical practice. Compiling an annotated bibliography will help you think about the relevance and quality of the research on a topic. Does the research meet the requirements of the case study? Is the information from a reliable and academically respected source?

You will be asked to do similar research to this in the workplace when preparing to conduct new research projects or when developing practice guidelines, procedures and protocols.


Task Description

For this task you need to write a 1500 word

essay

. In your essay you must

summarise, evaluate and critique three (

3) sources relevant to the case study.

There are three (3) parts to this essay:

Part 1: Annotated Bibliography (600 words)

Part 2: Justification for your choice of sources (700 words)

Part 3: Recommendations for clinical practice (200 words)

Research Essay
Case Study Charlie, a 75-year old overweight man, has arrived at the general practice clinic where you are currently working. He is breathless, has visible peripheral oedema, and tachycardia. Two years ago Charlie was diagnosed with chronic heart failure as a result of ischaemic cardiomyopathy and hypertension but states that in the past few days he has felt increasingly unwell. Based on the case, choose three references from the reference list below which you believe best summarise the evidence for the management of Charlie’s condition. References Faris, R. F., Flather, M., Purcell, H., Poole–Wilson, P. A., & Coates, A. J. S. (2006). Diuretics for heart failure. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2006(1), 1-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003838.pub2 Gorthi, J., Huntera, C. B., Mooss , A. N., Alla, V. M., & Hilleman, D. E. (2014). Reducing heart failure hospital readmissions: A systematic review of disease management programs. Cardiology Research, 5, 126-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/cr362w Guo, R., Pittler, M., & Ernst, E. (2008). Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2008(1), 1-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005312.pub2 McMurray, J. J., Adamopoulos, S., Anker, S., Auricchio, A., Bohm, M., Dickstein, K., … Zeiher, A. (2012). ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012. European Heart Journal, 33, 1787-1847. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjhf/hfs105 Molloy, G. J., O’Carroll, R. E., Witham, M. D., & McMurdo, M. E. T. (2012). Interventions to enhance adherence to medications in patients with heart failure: A systematic review. Circulation Heart Failure, 5, 126-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.111.964569 Murray, M. D., Tu, W., Wu, J., Morrow, D., Smith, F., & Brater, D. C. (2009). Factors associated with exacerbation of heart failure include treatment adherence and health literacy skills. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 85, 651-658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/clpt.2009.7 Rees, K., Dyakova, M., Wilson, N., Ward, K., Thorogood, M., & Brunner, E. (2013). Dietary advice for reducing cardiovascular risk. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2013(12), 1-113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002128.pub5 Sagar, V. A., Davies, E. J., Briscoe, S., Coates, A. J. S., Dalal, H. M., Lough, F., … Taylor, R. S. (2015). Exercise-based rehabilitation for heart failure: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Open Heart, 2, 1-12. Retrieved from http://openheart.bmj.com/content/openhrt/2/1/e000163.full.pdf Strömberg, A., Mårtensson, J., Fridlund, B., Levin, L-A., Karlsson, J-E., & Dahlström, U. (2003). Nurse-led heart failure clinics improve survival and self-care behaviour in patients with heart failure: Results from a prospective, randomised trial. European Heart Journal, 24, 1014-1023. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0195-668X(03)00112-X Takeda, A., Taylor, S. J. C., Taylor, R. S., Khan, F., Krum, H., & Underwood, M. (2012). Clinical service organisation for heart failure. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2012(9), 1-158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002752.pub3 Wu, J-R., Corley, D. J., Lennie, T. A., & Moser, D. K. (2012). Effect of a medication-taking behavior feedback theory-based intervention on outcomes in patients with heart failure. Journal of Cardiac Failure, 18(1), 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2011.09.006 http://openheart.bmj.com/content/2/1/e000163 3
Research Essay
Written Assignment 2: Essay 1500 words Weighting 30 % Task Rationale Writing an Annotated Bibliography will help you to find, summarise and organise the relevant research literature to support you in providing evidence based clinical practice. Compiling an annotated bibliography will help you think about the relevance and quality of the research on a topic. Does the research meet the requirements of the case study? Is the information from a reliable and academically respected source? You will be asked to do similar research to this in the workplace when preparing to conduct new research projects or when developing practice guidelines, procedures and protocols. Task Description For this task you need to write a 1500 word essay. In your essay you must summarise, evaluate and critique three (3) sources relevant to the case study. There are three (3) parts to this essay: Part 1: Annotated Bibliography (600 words) Part 2: Justification for your choice of sources (700 words) Part 3: Recommendations for clinical practice (200 words) Task Instructions Read the case study which is in the Attached Below Now read the sources in the Reference List and select three (3) sources that you will use for the annotated bibliography section of your essay. Select the sources that you think relate the most to the clinical condition presented in the case study. (Part 1) Write an annotation for each of the 3 sources (200 words each annotation).  There is a document called ‘Examples of Annotations’ in the Assessment to guide you.  Structure your annotated bibliography like this: alphabetical order according to the author’s name each annotation is a separate paragraph each annotation must begin with the formal citation (APA 6) population, methodology, findings conclusions limitations (Part 2) Next you need to justify your choice of references based on their: strengths, in relation to the associated case study, quality of the research, and what they add to clinical practice to manage the condition(s) presented in the case study (700 words). Use current literature to support your discussion. (Part 3) Finally, based on the evidence, you need to make recommendations for clinical practice (200 words). You will refer to the literature for this. Useful Resources: This resource from UNSW is also available to guide you – https://student.unsw.edu.au/annotated-bibliography NB* Necessary Tips for Writing your essay: Presentation and structure of the paper should support a logical flow of arguments. Word limits for assessment items need to be strictly adhered to. The word limit for an assessment item includes in text citations, tables and quotations. The word limit DOES NOT include the reference list. Please note the marker will cease marking your submitted work once they have reached the allocated word limit. You may use headings to structure your essay. Use academic language1 throughout, and use the third person unless otherwise instructed. Ensure that you use scholarly literature2 (digitised readings, research articles, relevant Government reports and text books) that has been published within the last 6 years Refer to the marking criteria when writing your assignment. This helps to ensure you address all criteria and assist you in calculating the weightings of the sections for your assignment. Your justification and recommendations should be supported by no fewer than 9 different sources (not including those provided) from scholarly literature. Your essay must conform to APA 6th edition style for in text references and the final reference list, and references are to be presented on a separate page. Formatting and Submission Please submit as ONE document including (in this order): 1. Assignment Cover sheets (Read carefully and complete all sections especially the Academic Integrity Declaration on the cover sheet). The health writing and referencing guide has coversheets attached to already formatted blank documents. Refer to that section of Health writing and referencing guide which outlines specified health group formatting guidelines for assignments Go to the link: 2. Assignment Title Page with correct details 3. Your essay, appropriately formatted (font, line spacing, margins, page numbers, student number etc.) 4. Reference list on a separate sheet and appropriately formatted. This is additional to the word limit. 1 2 3
Research Essay
Assessment 2 Annotated Bibliography ‘Examples of Annotations’ Eakin E., Reeves M., Winkler E., Lawler S., & Owen, N. (2010). Maintenance of physical activity and dietary change following a telephone-delivered intervention. Health Psychology, 29, 566-573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0021359 A randomised controlled trial was conducted and 434 patients with Type 2 diabetes or hypertension were recruited from ten primary care practices in a disadvantaged community. Five practices were randomised to a telephone-counselling intervention (n = 228) and five practices to usual care (n= 206). The aim was to examine the maintenance of behavioural changes six months after a telephone-delivered physical activity and diet intervention. Participants received 18 phone calls, a workbook with information on physical activity and healthy eating that followed the 5 A’s approach, and a pedometer. The usual care group received brief feedback on their assessment and health related brochures. The main outcome measures included the use of validated, self-report measures of physical activity and diet. Data was collected at baseline, twelve months, and 18 months (months post intervention). The findings showed both interventions were found to show significantly improved behaviour changes particularly in those who adhered to the study. The research is relevant for managing people with type 2 diabetes and hypertension living in disadvantaged communities. The researchers concluded that telephone-delivered interventions promoted maintenance of health behaviour change but studies with longer term follow-up are needed to determine how intervention duration and intensity might enhance maintenance. Guo, R., Pittler, M.H., & Ernst, E. (2008). Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2008(1), 1-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005312.pub2 A systematic review of double-blinded randomised controlled trials conducted by the Cochrane Heart Group members in 2008 assessed the benefits and harms of hawthorn extract compared to placebo for chronic heart failure patients. A comprehensive search of electronic databases included, CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library (issue 2, 2006), MEDLINE (1951 to June 2006), EMBASE (1974 to June 2006), CINAHL (1982 to June 2006) and AMED (1985 to June 2006). Studies used hawthorn leaf and flower extract mono-preparations. Two reviewers collected the data, independently selected the studies, conducted data extraction and assessed the quality of the studies. Data were analysed using RevMan software. The results included fourteen trials reporting hawthorn being used as an adjunct to conventional treatment. Ten trials including 855 patients with chronic heart failure underwent meta-analysis. Outcome measures included physiologic outcome of maximal workload, exercise tolerance, pressure–heart rate product, shortness of breath and fatigue. All showed significant beneficial results. Adverse events were found to be transient, mild and infrequent. A limitation was the methodological rigour varied among the trials. In conclusion, significant benefits were found using hawthorn extract as an adjunctive treatment for chronic heart failure in relation to symptom control and physiologic outcomes. 2

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