INTERMEDIATE ACCOUNTING 11 5ip

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2000

Craig Brown, a mechanic, is planning to open his
own car repair shop. He has selected the location, the kinds of cars
that he will service, and the number of people that he will employ.
However, he needs some help with the capitalization of the machines that
he needs to buy, and how he has to depreciate these assets. He
approaches you, an accountant friend, to help him understand the
fundamentals of capitalization of expenses, the various depreciation
methods, and the impact of this depreciation expense related to his
assets on the financial statements. You use a former client and other
businesses in the industry to prepare a report explaining these concepts
to him.

Part 1A

  • Explain to Craig the following:
    • Why it is it important to distinguish between expenses that need to be capitalized and expenses that need to be expensed.
    • What the underlying fundamental concept is that governs what expenses should be capitalized and what should be expensed.
    • Give
      an example of a company that experienced financial difficulty because
      of capitalizing expenses that should have been expensed.
  • The
    ABC car repair shop, a former client of yours, purchased a machine on
    January 1, 20X1, at a net cost of $65,000. At the end of the 4-year
    life, it expected that the machine would have a salvage value of $1,000.
    It also estimated that the machine would run for 13,000 hours during
    its 4-year life. The company’s fiscal year ends on December 31. Using
    the following information, compute depreciation for this machine for
    each of the 4 years using each of the following methods:
    • Straight-line method
    • Sum-of-years method
    • Double-declining method
    • Units-of-production

Year

Machine Hours

20X1

2,000

20X2

3,500

20X3

1,500

20X4

6,000

  • The
    ABC car repair shop purchased a machine in 20X1 at a cost of $20,000.
    The tractor was sold for $2,000 in 20X3. Depreciation recorded through
    the disposal totaled $16,000.
    • Prepare the journal entry to record the sale.
    • If the machine was sold for $10,000, what will the entry be?
  • The
    ABC car repair shop traded a new machine for an older model. The old
    model’s book value was $150,000 (original cost $350,000, less $200,000
    accumulated depreciation) and its fair value was $200,000. ABC paid
    $40,000 to complete the exchange.
    • Prepare the journal entry to record the exchange.

Part 1B

Research
the annual reports of various companies to find examples of the
following, and explain the meaning of your findings to Craig:

  • Equity securities:Find a company that has investments and equity securities listed on its balance sheet.
    • Cite the source of the statement(s).
    • Look at the footnotes to the financial statements and comment on its holdings in equity securities.
    • Explain how this information is used by an investor.
  • Cumulative effect:This
    has an impact on shareholders equity. Find a company that has an impact
    on their financial statements because of cumulative effect.
    • Cite the source of the statement(s).
    • Explain its footnotes.
    • Explain how this information is used by an investor.
  • Leases:Find a company that has leases.
    • Cite the source of the statement(s).
    • Examine
      its footnotes. See if it has capital leases or operating leases. What
      is the difference in the presentation in the financial statements?
      Provide an explanation of the notes to financial statements about
      leases.

Part 2

Identify, analyze, and record accounting error corrections.

  • Find a company that has accounting changes or correction of errors in its annual report.
    • Cite the source of the statement(s).
    • Discuss the footnote that explains the accounting change.
    • Explain the net impact on the financial statements.
  • In
    20X0, ABC company purchased machine for $300,000 that had a useful life
    of 5 years, with a salvage value of $50,000 at the end its life.
    Depreciation was calculated over 2 years on straight-line basis. In
    20X2, it determined that the total life should be 10 years with the
    salvage value of $5,000 at the end its life.
    • Prepare the entry to correct the depreciation for 20X1.
    • Prepare the entry to record the depreciation for 20X2.

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