State whether the following situations describe a between-subjects design or a within subjects…

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1. State whether the following situations describe a between-subjects design or a within subjects design.

(a) A sports psychologist compares mental functioning in a sample of athletes in four different sports. Answer

(b) A bio psychologist tests the time course for the release of neurohormone before, during, and following a task thought to cause its release.

(c) A college professor compares the average class grade for students in each of three section of a statistics course.

(d) A behavioral psychologist allows a sample of children to play with four toys of various colors and has them rate how much they like playing with each toy. The psychologist compares mean ratings for each toy.

2. Which source of error is included in the F table for the one-way ANOVA but not for the one-way between subjects ANOVA?

Answer: The differences between person means averaged across groups.

The same participants are observed across groups, Which the source of variation is removed from the error term in the denominator of the test for the one way within subjects ANOVA

3. A child psychologist treated four children who were afraid of snakes with a behavioral modification procedure called systematic desensitization. In this procedure, children were slowly introduced to a snake before the first session [baseline] and following each treatment session. Higher ratings indicate greater fear. The hypothetical data are listed in the table below.

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