Diary of Lady Sarashina, history assignment help

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Write 200 word summary AND 200 word
reaction comment/opinion of article links

Student will submit a summary (200 words in
length each) as well as a personal comments/reaction (also 200 words each) for
each of the following links listed below :

Please use the following format:

Title of Document 1

Summary: summary of document in your own
words; required length 200 words

Comments: personal thoughts, commentary,
reaction to document selected; required length 200 words

Title of Document 2

Summary: summary of document in your own
words; required length 200 words

Comments: personal thoughts, commentary,
reaction to document selected; required length 200 words

Title of Document 3

Summary: summary of document in your own
words; required length 200 words

Comments:
personal thoughts, commentary, reaction to document selected; required length
200 words

Documents:

Chapter 12
Poems of Ouyang Xiu: http://chinese-poems.com/oyx.htmlPoems of Li Bai: http://www.chinese-poems.com/lb.htmlNOTE: If you select either of these documents, you do not need to
summarize the poems. Instead, please write a 300-350 word essay of your
reaction(s) at three poems you read.
Tang Taizong, Excerpts from “The Art of Government:”The Diary of Lady Sarashina (1009-1059): http://history.hanover.edu/texts/diaries/diaryall.html

Chapter 13
Japanese Creation Myth (712 CE): http://public.wsu.edu/~brians/world_civ/worldcivreader/world_civ_reader_1/kojiki.html
Ancient Korean Poems: Read and summarize at least three. http://www.korea.net/NewsFocus/Culture/view?articleId=120978“Mountains and Rivers of the Southern Country” (Vietnamese Poem) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nam_qu%E1%BB%91c_s%C6%A1n_h%C3%A0

INDIA:

The medieval era in India began with the rise of the
Rajputs. The Rajputs were an image of feudalism and chivalry. Though they were
devoted warriors, the Rajputs fought among themselves and weakened their
empire. The medieval history of India is largely dominated by incidents of
foreign rule and invasion due to lack of stability in Indian rulers. The
weakening of the Rajputs attracted the Turks who invaded India on every given
opportunity. The Turks were not just interested in India’s wealth but also
wanted to establish their empires and take over other

kingdoms. The ruler of Delhi and one of the bravest Rajput
soldiers Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated by the Turkish invader Mohammad Ghori.
He captured Delhi and appointed one of the military slaves Qutub-ud-din Aibak
as its ruler. Qutub-ud-din Aibak started a series of new rulers. known as the
Slave dynasty. This marked the beginning of the Delhi Sultanate.

After the Slave dynasty came the Khilji dynasty. The Khilji
dynasty was marked by gruesome battles and capturing of power from one another.
The last ruler of the Khilji dynasty was not an able ruler and was murdered
which ended the Khilji dynasty. Then came the Tughlaqs, Sayyids and Lodhis who
ruled Delhi one after the other in quick succession. After this, the first
battle of Panipat took place which marked the end of the Lodhi dynasty and the
start of the Mughal rule in India. Medieval India also saw the rise of a
culture called Sikhism and was also influenced by Sufism. Medieval architecture
was a blend of Hindu and Islamic styles of architectures.

Islam had moved across Persia and Afghanistan and entered
northwestern India by the 800s. The Rajput attempted to stop the advance of
Islam into India, but their armies could not stop the fervent warriors of
Islam. By the twelfth century, Muslim control had centered on the Delhi
Sultanate. By the early 1500s, Muslim control had extended into much of India
and came into conflict with the polytheistic Hindus. Islam had also crossed
over into the Indies through Malaysia and finally into the southern islands of
the Philippine chain.

CHINA

The political disorder after the collapse of the Han
dynasty was reversed by the establishment of centralized government under the
Sui, Tang, Song, and Ming dynasties. China experienced trade and agricultural
expansion, significant technological advances, emphasis on Chinese tradition,
including the patriarchal family and Confucian teachings.

The Tang dynasty conquered present-day Afghanistan and
portions of Tibet, Manchuria, and South Vietnam. To solidify and protect their
vast empire, the Tang used diplomacy and strengthening the Great Wall. The
expanding Tang empire centered on a bureaucracy influenced by the
scholar-gentry and by Confucian perceptions of effective government. Both the
Tang and the Song strengthened the Chinese civil service examination. Despite
the emphasis on Confucian principles, Buddhism gained acceptance during the
Tang dynasty. By the early 10th Century, internal rebellion and invasions by nomads weakened the
authority and control of the Tang.

The Song replaced the Tang in the mid-900s. The Song
strengthened many Chinese traditions. They emphasized the scholar- gentry over
the military and the civil service exam. Neo-Confucianism rose as a blend of
Confucian and Buddhist values. From the onset, the Song paid tribute to the
Khitan to keep them from taking over more Song territory. The tribute burdened
the Song economy. Toward the end of their rule, the Song now faced the threat
of the Jurchens who had replaced the Khitan and came to dominate the basin of
the Huang He (Yellow) River. The Song consolidated their rule of the Yangtze
River basin.

The Song was overcome in the 13th
Century by the Mongols, a society of pastoral nomads
from the steppes of Central Asia. By the end of the 1400s, the

Mongols had conquered China, Persia, and Russia and created
the largest empire in history. In establishing their empire, they facilitated
the flow of trade between Europe and Asia and brought bubonic plague to three
continents. They were accomplished horsemen
and traded with settled agricultural peoples for grain and vegetables. The

basic unit of Mongol society was the tribe.
The leader credited with organizing the Mongols into an effective

confederation was Temujin, who was renamed Genghis
(Chinggis) Khan.
After the death of Chinggis Khan in 1227, the Mongols continued to
expand westward into Russia, who called the eastern nomads Tartars.
They burned and massacred and sold survivors into slavery. The Mongols
kept Russia culturally isolated from the West. In the mid-1200s the Mongols
invaded Hungary, the first step to an invasion of Europe. However, internal
problems back in Mongolia forestalled the intended invasion.

A grandson of Genghis Khan, Kublai Khan conquered most of
the remaining territory of the Song. By 1271, he began to refer to his
administration of China as the Yuan dynasty, which lasted until its overthrow
by the Ming dynasty in 1368.

The Ming Dynasty ruled China from 1368 to 1644. It was the
last ethnic Han-led dynasty in China, supplanting the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty
before falling to the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty. Although the Ming capital,
Beijing, fell in 1644, remnants of the Ming throne and power survived until
1662. The Civil Service and a strong centralized government developed during
this period. Commerce, trade and also naval exploration flourished with ships
possible reaching the Americas in 1421 , before Christopher Columbus set sail
in 1492. Towards the end of the Ming rule, Portugal founded the first European
colony, Macao, in China in 557). Ming rule saw the construction of a vast navy,
including four-masted ships of 1,500 tons displacement, and a standing army of
1,000,000 troops. Many books were printed using movable type. There were strong
feelings amongst the Han ethnic group against the rule by non-Han ethnic groups
during the subsequent Qing Dynasty, and the restoration of the Ming dynasty was
used as a rallying cry up until the modern era. Towards the end of the dynasty,
the emperors increasingly retired from public life and power devolved to
influential officials. Strife among the ministers and corruption in the court
all contributed to the demise of this long dynasty. Their successors would have
to deal with the increased influence of the European powers in China, and the
subsequent loss of complete autonomy. The earlier overseas explorations yielded
to isolationism as the idea that all outside of China was barbarian took hold.

KOREA:

By 4000 BC there were stone age farmers living in Korea. By
1000 BC they had learned to use bronze. By about 300 BC they had learned to use
iron to make tools and weapons. At first Korea was divided into tribes but
eventually organized kingdoms emerged. There were three: Goguryeo in the north
and Silla and Baekje in the south. The three kingdoms emerged between the
second and fourth centuries AD. These kingdoms were heavily influenced by
Chinese civilization. The three kingdoms of Korea fought for supremacy. China
tried to defeat the northern kingdom of Goguryeo twice. Both times they were defeated.
However, the Chinese then made an alliance with the Silla kingdom against the
other two. The Baekje kingdom was defeated by 660 AD and became part of Silla.
Goguryeo followed in 668. Korea was then united under the Silla.

Although Korea was united under one monarch, it was still
largely a tribal society. This was underlined by the existence of the hwabaek.
Originally they were a council of tribal leaders. Later they were a council of
nobles and they had the power to decide who succeeded to the throne. Korean
society was strictly hierarchical. Most of the population were serfs and even
the nobility were divided into ranks. Following the Chinese example a
university was formed where Confucian classics were taught. There were also
civil service exams following the Chinese model. Buddhism was introduced into
Korea in the 4th century AD, and soon many Buddhist temples were built. In the
late 8th century AD the Silla kingdom began to break down. There were fights
over the succession to the throne. Moreover, local warlords began to break away
from the government in the capital, Gyeongju, and formed their own states. One
warlord called Wang Geon formed a state called Goryeo in 918. He defeated his
rivals and in 935 became ruler of Silla.

The Goryeo kingdom was faced with aggressive neighbors. A
people called the Jurchens conquered north China and frequently fought the
Koreans. Then China fell to the Mongols. They soon turned their attention to
Korea and they invaded in 1231. The Korean royal family fled to the island of
Ganghwado. The Mongols were unable to take the island, but they were able to
rampage throughout mainland Korea. The Koreans fought back and the Mongols were
never able to completely subdue Korea. Finally in 1258 the Korean royal family
surrendered. They were allowed to remain as puppet rulers.

In the 13th century the Chinese philosophy called
Neo-Confucianism arrived in Korea. A man named Kim Bu-sik wrote a history of
Korea called Samguksagi, The History of the Three Kingdoms. However the Goryeo
dynasty was in decline. In 1392 a General named Yi Seong-gye was ordered to
lead an army against the Ming rulers of China. Instead he turned against his
own ruler. The general became the new king of Korea. The king moved the capital
to Hanseong (Seoul) in 1394. Under the Yi rulers Confucianism was made the
official religion of Korea. Buddhism lost its influence. In 1443, king Sejong
created a native Korean alphabet.

JAPAN

Japan’s early history is lost in legend. The divine design
of the empire—supposedly founded in 660 B.C. by the emperor Jimmu, a lineal
descendant of the sun goddess and ancestor of the present emperor—was held as
official dogma until 1945. Actually, reliable records date back only to about
A.D. 400. In the first centuries of the Christian era the country was inhabited
by numerous clans or tribal kingdoms ruled by priest-chiefs. Contacts with
Korea were close, and bronze and iron implements were probably introduced by
invaders from Korea around the 1st century. By the fifth century, the Yamato
clan, whose original home was apparently in Kyushu, had settled in the vicinity
of modern Kyoto and had established a loose control over the other clans of
central and western Japan, laying the foundation of the Japanese state.

From the sixth to the eighth century, the rapidly
developing society gained much in the arts of civilization under the strong
cultural influence of China, then flourishing in the splendor of the T’ang
dynasty. Buddhism was introduced, and the Japanese upper classes assiduously
studied Chinese language, literature, philosophy, art, science, and government,
creating their own forms adapted from Chinese models. A partially successful
attempt was made to set up a centralized, bureaucratic government like that of
imperial China. The Yamato priest-chief assumed the dignity of an emperor, and
an imposing capital city, modeled on the T’ang capital, was erected at Nara, to
be succeeded by an equally imposing capital at Kyoto.

By the ninth century, however, the powerful Fujiwara family
had established a firm control over the imperial court. The Fujiwara influence
and the power of the Buddhist priesthood undermined the authority of the
imperial government. Provincial gentry—particularly the great clans who opposed
the Fujiwara—evaded imperial taxes and grew strong. A feudal system developed.
Civil warfare was almost continuous in the twelth century.

The Minamoto family defeated their rivals, the Taira, and
became masters of Japan. Their great leader, Yoritomo, took the title of
shogun, established his capital at Kamakura, and set up a military
dictatorship. For the next 700 years Japan was ruled by warriors. The old civil
administration was not abolished, but gradually decayed, and the imperial court
at Kyoto fell into obscurity. The Minamoto soon gave way to the Hojo, who
managed the Kamakura administration as regents for puppet shoguns, much as the
Fujiwara had controlled the imperial court.

In 1274 and again in 1281 the Mongols under Kublai Khan
tried unsuccessfully to invade the country (see kamikaze). In 1331 the emperor
Daigo II attempted to restore imperial rule. He failed, but the revolt brought
about the downfall of the Kamakura regime. The Ashikaga family took over the
shogunate in 1338 and settled at Kyoto, but were unable to consolidate their
power. The next 250 years were marked by civil wars, during which the feudal
barons (the daimyo) and the Buddhist monasteries built up local domains and
private armies. Nevertheless, in the midst of incessant wars there was a brisk
development of manufacturing and trade, typified by the rise of Sakai (later
Osaka) as a free city not subject to feudal control. This period saw the birth
of a middle class. Extensive maritime commerce was carried on with the
continent and with SE Asia; Japanese traders and pirates

VIETNAM:

About 2,000 years ago people in North Vietnam began growing
rice in the Red River Valley. To irrigate their crops they built dykes and dug
canals. They were forced to work together and so an organized kingdom emerged
called Van Lang. However in the 2nd century BC the Chinese conquered the area.
The Chinese ruled northern Vietnam for more than 1,000 years and Chinese
civilization had a great impact on the Vietnamese. However, in South Vietnam
there was Indian influence. From the 1st century to the 6th century AD the
southernmost part of Vietnam was part of a state called Funan. In the middle of
Vietnam an Indian influenced state called Champa arose in the 2nd century AD.

In North Vietnam the people resented Chinese rule and in 40
AD the Trung sisters led a rebellion. They formed an independent state.
However, in 43 AD the Chinese crushed the rebellion and the sisters killed
themselves. The Chinese continued to rule North Vietnam until the 10th century.
Finally, in 938 a leader named Ngo Quyen defeated the Chinese at the battle of
Bach Dang River and North Vietnam became an independent state.

In the 13th century the Mongols invaded Vietnam three
times. In 1257 and 1284 they captured the capital but each time they soon
withdrew. Then in 1288 the Vietnamese leader Tran Hung Dao routed the Mongols
at the Bach Dang River. However, in the early 15th century China tried to
regain control of North Vietnam. In 1407 they occupied the country but their
rule was resisted. In 1418, Le Loi began the Lam Son Uprising. By 1428 the
Chinese were driven out and Le Loi became the Emperor Le Thai To. Under his
successors the central Vietnamese state of Champa became a vassal state of
North Vietnam. However, in the early 16th century the power of the Le dynasty
declined. During the 17th and 18th centuries two rival families effectively
held power, the Trinh in the north and the Nguyen in the south. The Nguyen
family conquered the

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