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Mucormycosis is a considered a life-threatening disease, that is an amalgamation of infections that come from the organism mucorales belonging to a group of fungi Mucoromycotina. It usually involves individuals with “uncontrolled diabetes; malignancy; hematopoietic stem cell transplant or solid organ transplant; persistent neutropenia; prolonged corticosteroid therapy; skin trauma, burns, or surgical wounds; iron overload; intravenous drug use; malnourishment; and premature infants” (Centers of Disease Control, 2011). In terms of exposure, most often associated with inhalation from environments that contain fungal spores. Moreover, can involve sinus and brain infection involving rhinocerebral infection – a sinus infection that affects the brain stem nerves. In addition, it affects the lungs (pulmonary mucormycosis) which exacerbates the individuals condition of pneumonia that can distribute to other sections of the body which includes the chest cavity, brain, and heart (Medicine Plus, 2016).
The main signs and symptoms include the following for sinus infections (fever, headache, and sinus pain), skin (fever, and tenderness, pain, heat, excessive redness, or swelling around a wound) and lung infections (fever, cough) (Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, 2011).
Abnormal labs that are present HCO3 29 meq/L (22-26 meq/L) and pH 7.50 (7.35-7.45), which suggest metabolic alkalosis. Moreover, the patient has a decreased Pa02 of 59 mm Hg on room air (80-100), reduced oxygenation circulating and and is alkalotic and is partially compensated – PC02 of 25 mm Hg (35-45 mm Hg). Moreover, the individual also has an elevated WBC of 15,200/mm³ (5-10,000/mm³) and lymphocytes of 10% which revolves the patient having an infection. Patient also has an elevated fasting blood sugar of 138 mg/dl (60-110 mg/dl) as the patient is fighting the infection and the body is trying to compensate.
Medication treatments involve two antifungal treatment which is “amphotericin B products and posaconazole, isavuconazole with activity against Mucorales…posaconazole in an oral formulation that can be administered safely for prolonged periods makes it an attractive agent for long-term primary and secondary prophylaxis” (Kontoyiannis & Lewis, 2011). These treatment is involved to reduce or halt the spreading to the disease whilst treating other comorbidities. Likewise, consultation for infectious disease specialist and surgeon should be seen as the patient may need surgery debridement or surgical resection to address the decaying of tissue and possible removal. These complications include the following which are “blindness, meningitis, brain abscesses, osteomyelitis, pulmonary hemorrhages, gastrointestinal hemorrhages, cavitary lesions in organs and eventually secondary bacterial infections, sepsis, and death may occur” (Medicine Net, 2015).