Abortion right/laws in Michigan
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paper is on Abortion rights in Michigan.
need a reference page with a list of AT LEAST 15 sources about your research
problem. Make sure that you follow APA
student shall write a 3 page memo (double-spaced,
12 pt. font) answering the questions below. You can provide relevant
graphs or data tables to report your findings in your memo. Please report the
source of the data in the list of
references. As in APA format, all
graphs, tables should be attached at the end of your document in an appendix
and only referenced in the body of the memo.
Provide empirical evidence and make sure you cite your references
throughout the memo. You may use
secondary sources (i.e. policy briefs, newspapers or magazine articles). Please
provide a list of references at the end of your brief.
Questions to answer:
Describe two examples of policy
solutions to your problem. Where have they been tried? Has either one proven to
Briefly assess whether either
proposal could be applied in your context.
Why? Why not?
FOR RESEARCH PAPER
The assignment is to do a policy analysis.
Of course, you should bring in some “factual” material to set your
problems and illustrate and support your arguments.
This is not
intended to be solely a library research paper of the usual sort. The paper
also is not intended to be an abstract discussion of “issues
in general,” organizational analysis, a management analysis, or a program
analysis. These might be ingredients in the paper, but the focus should be
clearly on the policy issue which lies behind them and which gives it
significance (e.g., the gun control issue, religious activities in public
places, ballot initiatives & recalls, affirmative action, prescription drug
benefits, reparations, bilingual education, gay unions, teacher testing,
decriminalization of drug use, the Patriot Act, campaign finance reform, etc.)
Selection of a policy issue. Any
policy issue is acceptable. However, be aware that the probability of a
successful and useful paper tends to go up with the degree of Interest you have
in the issue. Your interests are far from irrelevant since a very early stage
of any analysis involves making explicit what one’s interests are — what is of
concern. Unexamined concerns can foreclose certain alternatives that may
dictate the solutions and recommendations with which you will conclude. You should
be aware of your own proclivities as you embark upon the analysis (or as soon
as possible thereafter).
There is nearly as much variability in the
concrete form that analysis can take as there is in the sort of issues
addressed. The organization of the paper should follow, reflect, and facilitate
the expression of the substance. Decisions about how to organize it are
yours–but you should be aware that they will materially affect the analysis.
As a practical matter, the way you speak (write) has a lot to do with how you
are heard. Therefore, the way an analysis is presented importantly influences
how it is received and used, or what happens as a result of it. Conceptually,
form and substance are intertwined but try to let substance precede form in importance.
Certain elements are widely thought to be
appropriate to policy analysis and are strung together in a “rationalistic”
version of the various phases below. It is not recommended that you try
to organize your paper (or your mind) in this way; rather these should be
viewed and treated as a set of considerations which, in some form, will enter
into your analysis.
Faced with a problematic situation,
first state what (your) the objectives are with respect to
it; determine what values are at stake, and rank order them in a priority
order; consider (all?) the consequences, (specify in
degree of probability) attached to each alternative; evaluate the
benefits and, by aggregation, each alternative; choose that
alternative which provides the best mix of consequences, greatest net benefit,
in relation to the set of objectives specified (and other values you may
hold?); proceed to implement that choice assuming you have the
resources and set up an evaluation procedure to measure progress toward
the goals together with a timetable for goal achievement.
Notes about method. Often, the methods we have “at
hand” dictate the approach we take, and are used regardless of the subject
matter. As with structure, the methods chosen: should be dictated instead by
substantive considerations. In general, you will find talking/arguing with
yourself and others about the issues useful. It will be necessary for you to
familiarize yourself with the arguments, positions, competing values, etc.,
that relate to your issue.
Limitations on size. Be “as short as possible and as long as
necessary.” Aim to keep the body of the paper to about 10-12 double-spaced
pages. There will be a tendency to
expand as time goes on so be sure to leave some time to winnow and rewrite.
How the analysis will be judged. I
will be looking for evidence of careful, clear, cogent, coherent, critical,
personal thinking presented in a solid, well developed, well-written,
well-defended argument. Your discussion will be adequate if it has as much
clearness as the subject matter admits of . . . (Aristotle). Do not aggravate
the messiness of policy problems by fuzzy-headedness. Do not distort the
problem by enforcing adherence to some pre-set standards of precision and
simplicity. I also will be looking for:
Who is hurt/helped by the current state of
affairs and by the alternatives;
Representation of value conflicts,
trade-offs between/among alternatives;
Breadth and depth of thinking–context and
significance of problems, consequences of alternative
courses of action for the “larger system”;
Care and caution in the use of words such as.
“must,” “need,” or “cause”;
Care in drawing conclusions. giving
Design of preferred alternatives to fit
described (prescribed) situation;
Awareness of constraints on implementing
preferred alternatives; and
Awareness of limitations on the analysis.
caution. Most people are not accustomed
to thinking in these ways, or at least in doing this sort of term paper. Some
find it irresistible to give long case descriptions, chronology, or history of
issues, and then to stick in a couple of pages of analysis just before the
conclusion. I want you to give an equal balance between description and
analysis and include not more than five or so pages on “background” or
other such description. If you really need more than that, include it in an
Appendix. In general, you should proceed as if your audience is reasonably
intelligent, generally well-informed, and interested in your issue.
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