540 discussion responses

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250 words per response to each classmate with 1-2 scholarly references under each one for credit.

1) Paul Hoffman

Topic 4 DQ 1 (Obj. 4.3)

Qualitative methods are used to provide a thick description or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods. These methods elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of phenomenon or intervention. Participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than randomly and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis (Bernard, 2002).

Examples of the use of qualitative methods in mental health services research include ethnography of an emergency psychiatric unit. This study provided a descriptive account of the way clinicians reported making treatment decisions, their beliefs about how decisions should be made, and barriers to making treatment decisions. The use of qualitative data to contextualize the outcomes evaluation of a quality improvement approach for implementing evidence-based employment services in specialty mental health clinics. Qualitative methods are used to “localize” evidence-based practices by providing the necessary insight into the local context in which practices that have been evaluated for their “global” generalizability must be applied (Byng et al., 2008).

Qualitative methods also allow people to speak in their own voice, rather than conforming to categories and terms imposed on them by others. By eliciting participant perspective, qualitative methods serve to enhance the validity of data being collected because it enables the investigator to compare their own perception of reality with the perception of those who are being studied. For example, Lee and colleagues gave youths in foster care an opportunity to voice their experiences with mental health services and specific providers. By using these methods, investigators were able to better understand the perspectives of the participants and see how their perspectives compared with one another (Lee et al., 2006).

Bernard, H. R. (2002). Research methods in anthropology: Quantitative and qualitative approaches, (3rd). Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press.

Byng, R., Norman, I., Redfern, S., & Jones, R. (2008). Exposing the key functions of a complex intervention for share care in mental health: Case study of a process evaluation. BMC Health Services Research, 8, (247). doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-8-274.

Lee, B. R., Munson, M. R., Ware, N. C., Ollie, M. T., Scott, L. D., & McMillen, J. C. (2006). Experiences of and attitudes toward mental health services among older youths in foster care. Psychiatric Services, 57, (487-492). doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.57.4.487.

2) Kimberly Frederick

Topic 4 DQ 1 (Obj. 4.3)

Qualitative research methods are used to discover the why and how of psychological theory. It is driven toward explorative aspects of understanding behavior and focuses on possibilities and potentials that are underlining theoretical applications and measures. As stated, “Most qualitative research designs are not necessarily intended to generalize to a larger population, but rather explore, describe, or explain the richness and complexity of an issue with a small and unique sample.” (Sheperis et al., 2017) Some example of these uses can be found in counseling research using families, couples, and small groups of children. When using traditional measures to understand data that is collected in quantitative form, counselors may see the nee to address more philosophical understandings of the intended focus. Using qualitative methods that attempt to collect data that cannot be observable or measured objectively. According to Sheperis et al., “To collect in-depth data, qualitative researchers normally gather information by means of (a) detailed interviews of subjects, (b) participation in the setting where the phenomena exist, (c) direct observation of subjects, and (d) analysis of documents and other existing materials. (Sheperis, 2017)

An example of qualitative data to be used in family therapy would be approached first gathering information on the focus topic, for instance, families that are experiencing behavioral effects after transitioning their children to homeschooling after the 9thgrade. Once the counselor has gathered information that quantifies what, when, and where (which is usually gathered in large group study research), the counselor develops a group of individuals whom have experience emotional or behavioral effects from issues generated by the focus topic. Whether in a group of families or in the family sessions with each family, the counselor will begin to try to understand the why and how of causation to the topic. How is it effecting the human interaction processes?


Sheperis, C., Young, J., & Daniels, M. (2017). Counseling research: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

3) John Gallegos

Topic 4 DQ 2 (Obj. 4.1 and 4.4)

Hello Everyone,

Statistical significance is was the only way researcher would analyze data. When something is considered significant they are saying the probability of null hypothesis being true or there is a chance that the finding is highly probably and possible. This method doesn’t give magnitude or the size of its effect on a given variable (Pintea, n.d., p.102). Later effect size was added to account for the strength of the relationship or used in clinical significance. A large effect size should have clinical significance rather than statistical significance (Pintea, n.d., p.104). On the other hand, clinical significance has effect of a value. For example, a client has gone from “dysfunctional to a functional” member of society after treatment (Pintea, n.d., p.105). there is the clinical perspective that is coming from the researcher and that of the client which are supporting the statement of clinical significance.

If there was a study done that most people prefer Coke over Pepsi, there would be a need to find out the size of the study to account for the number of people in the a given population. The number of sample participants would be a house hold of 5 members like Coke over Pepsi. The effect size would be too small to make a generalized or a significant finding.

The other statistical evaluations can be a mixed method which focuses on improvement and recovery. The Jacobson-Truax method is the way a person changes from where they were (dysfunctional) to a normal state of functioning (Pintea, n.d., p.108). The differences can be seen in the sample size and statistical analysis after collecting the data. Practical significance is have become from that of effect size and the choices of variation that us more conventional (Thompson, 2002, p.65).


Pintea, S. (n.d.). The Relevance of Results in Clinical Research: Statistical, Practical, and

Clinical Significance. Journal of Cognitive and behavioral

Psychotherapies,10(1), 101–114. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-



Thompson, B. (2002). “Statistical,” ’practical’, and “clinical”: How many kinds of significance do

counselors need to consider? Journal of Counseling & Development, 80(1), 64–71.


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